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南岳大庙导游词(中英文)

2014-06-05 05:41  长大导航    字号:T|T

各位团友:

大家好!欢迎各位来南岳衡山观光旅游,很高兴能和大家一起参观有“江南小故宫”之称的南岳大庙,并很荣幸能和大家共度一段美好时光,祝大家游得开心,玩得尽兴!

各位团友,现在呈现在我们眼前的这座宫殿式古建筑群,就是有名的南岳大庙,位于南岳古镇北端,赤帝峰下。它是一组集民间祠庙、佛教寺院、道教宫观及皇宫建筑于一体的建筑群,也是我国南方及五岳之中规模最大的庙宇,占地面积98500平方米。始建年代不详,地方誌有记载的大庙最早建于唐开元十三年(公元725年),历经宋、元、明、清历朝各代六次大火和十六次重修扩建,现存建筑于清光绪八年(公元1882年)重建,它是仿照北京故宫建的宫殿式的古建筑群,因此有“江南小故宫”之美称。中轴线上的主体建筑由棂星门、奎星阁、正川门(正南门)、御碑亭、嘉应门、御书楼、正殿、寝宫和北后门九进、四重院落组成。东边有八个道观、西边有八个佛寺,中轴线上则是儒家的建筑风格。虽然儒、释、道三教信仰不同,追求各异,但他们长期以来友好相处、共同发展、同存共荣。儒、释、道三教共存一庙,这是我国乃至世界庙宇中绝无仅有的。早在明清时期,大庙就以其出色的木刻、石雕、泥塑被誉为“江南三绝”。同时以八百蛟龙为最大特色,无论殿宇的梁柱、屋檐,还是柱基、神座,乃至门框、斗拱,神态各异的蛟龙,随处可见,原来这里自古就有八百蛟龙护南岳的传说。

我们现在所站的这座石拱桥,叫“寿涧”桥,桥下是寿涧水,盛传“取岳山之水可以延年益寿”,因为南岳是寿山、寿岳,所以这座桥,是因水而得名的。相传,如果谁能三步跨过这座桥,便可长命百岁。

各位请抬头看看大庙的正门叫什么门?有谁能认出第一个字来?(停顿)这位小姐说对啦,念“灵”字音,有好些人认不出此字,这也难怪,因为用这个“棂”字冠以庙门的很少见。不知诸位是否去过山东孔庙,孔庙的正门即是棂星门,其实,在中国也只有这两处“棂星门”。那是为什么呢?因为棂星本是28宿之一,叫天田星。据《星经》记载:门以“棂星”命名,意思是人才辈出,为国所用。因此,一般的庙宇绝不可用“棂星”来命名。要用“棂星”冠以庙门,必须达到三个很苛刻的要件:第一,是规模较大、气势宏伟的庙宇;第二,必须是人才辈出的地方;第三,须皇帝下诏书。达到以上三个条件才能建棂星门,可见,我们南岳确实是个人杰地灵的风水宝地。凡是出入此门的人,都将成为祖国各条战线上的栋梁之才。请各位仔细看看棂星门的对联,看有谁能将它正确念出?这位老先生念得很准:棂环卐字,槛绕回文,仰台阁辉煌,是谓仙宸帝阙;星敛贪狼,风仪和凤,喜山河奠定,同游化日光天。这是副老联新刻的联语,它高度赞扬了大庙佛道并存及建筑规模之辉煌和祖国形势之大好。在棂星门上方的汉白玉碑上,有金光闪闪的“岳庙”二字,是衡山学者康和声所书。门原是木结构的,到民国二十一年(1932年)才换成花岗石门,门高和宽均为20米,厚1.1米,是我国现存的最高、最宽的石质牌坊大门。牌坊上的坊顶,方中有圆,圆中有方,大家想想看这是个什么呢?对啦,是颗石印,象征南岳圣帝的玉玺,寓示着南岳庙至高无上的地位。门前这两只古朴大方、形态逼真的石狮(西边一只为雄狮戏珠,东边一只为母狮戏仔),常年蹲在这里,喜迎四海嘉宾进入这吉祥之门。

各位朋友,请跟随我一起循着昔日皇宫贵族的足迹迈入棂星门逐一参观游览。跨入棂星门,即是一个翠柏夹道、古树参天,绿草如茵的庭院。院内左右有水火池(俗称放生池),两边有东西碑亭。东亭中置有明成化年间尚书商辂撰写的《重修南岳庙记》碑刻;西亭中置有宋代范纯仁撰写的《祭衡岳文》碑。

前面所见的这座古朴典雅、精致玲珑的楼阁叫奎星阁,又名盘龙亭,此为大庙的第二进。它为重檐歇山顶建筑,面积139平方米。大家看到,阁楼上有“戏台”二字,的确,这是湖南省保存最完好的一座古戏台。为何称为“戏台”呢?据说历代帝王天子或朝庭命官来岳祭拜岳神时,地方官员都要请一些戏班子和民间艺人前来演唱,以增添喜庆气氛。戏台基座上有四个大铜钱孔,这些铜钱孔起什么作用?它们起扩音的作用,同时也象征着国富民强,国泰民安。如今回首看看戏台两侧保存下来的“静听之”、“细思之”的题字,实在令人感慨万千。在戏台的中央顶部,有一条巨大的木雕盘龙,由香樟树雕刻而成,雕刻技术高超,工艺精湛,而且还会转动哩!故此亭又叫盘龙亭。

既是戏台,又名盘龙亭,那为何称“奎星阁”呢?大家清楚,魁星乃文曲星之首,《孝经》记载:“奎主文章”,后人进而把奎星演化为文官之首,主管文人学士成败命运。在三楼阁顶内原塑有一尊右手执笔、左手捧斗、形态森然的奎星塑像,以示崇文之意。相传谁被他点中,就会连中三元,即古代科举考试中的解元、会元和状元。现在有很多望子成龙的父母都带着子女前来这神奇的奎星阁祭拜,希望能如愿以偿。

阁楼两侧有钟、鼓二亭,左边钟亭原有一口九千斤重的大钟,右边鼓亭原有一个直径2米的大鼓,据传钟鼓齐鸣可以镇住洪水,使龙王不敢兴风作浪,以保国泰民安。

眼前这座很象一个“川”字的三个半圆形门叫“川门”,也叫正南门,是岳庙的第三进,门洞高15米,全由青砖砌成,川门分为正川门和东西川门。正川门在古代时只有帝王天子和朝庭命官才能通行,平民百姓,只能走东、西川门。门洞上原有一栋造型别致,四周有棂窗的大阁楼,可惜在1944年被日军炸毁,后来整修成平台,登上平台可以俯瞰大庙全景。现在我们所见的阁楼为1997年重建。

过了川门,即到了第四进御碑亭。亭系木结构,为八角重檐攒尖顶,红柱碧瓦,雀替斗拱,脊兽齐备、玲珑夺目,八个飞檐角均挂有鱼尾铁钟,风动钟响,清脆动听。此亭又叫百寿亭,亭的四周檐板上撰写了200个篆体各异的“寿”字,每个寿字构思巧妙,无一雷同,意思是住在“寿岳”的人们能延年益寿。亭内是清康熙四十七年所立的御制青石碑,碑高6.6米,重约四千斤,上刻清圣祖玄烨亲撰《重修南岳庙记》碑文279字,内容叙述了康熙年间重修南岳大庙的经过,遗憾的是康熙皇帝的手迹毁于文革之中,石碑顶上有双龙捧日的浅雕盘龙,栩栩如生。碑座有龟趺,是由一整块青石镂凿而成,重20吨。我们所见的这青石龟有几种说法,一说为龙子,相传龙生九子,各有奇能,此乃龙王的第九个儿子叫贔屃,它好文不好武,且擅长负重,据说碑碣立在他的背上便可久经沧桑而不倒,永存后世。因此,历代都用它驮着御碑,供游人欣赏。二说此青石龟叫千年长寿吉祥龟,非常有灵气,人们都说“摸摸龟头,一生不愁;摸摸龟背,大富大贵;摸摸龟身,财运(官运)亨通;摸摸龟尾,办事不累;摸摸龟爪,一切都好;从头摸到尾,万事不后悔”。大家不妨试试,带些灵气回家哦!关于这只乌龟的来历还有一民间传说,由于时间关系,暂且不说。大家若有兴趣,稍后再讲述给各位听。

看完御碑亭,让我们接着参观第五进嘉应门,嘉应门是历史上迎接宾客的仪门。古人云:“天地顺而嘉应降”,“嘉应”是有客从远方而来的意思。历代皇帝及朝庭命官来南岳祭祀,地方官员和庙祝都在此恭候迎接。此门宽36.8米,深16米,高18米,为单檐歇山七开间建筑,是整个大庙最宽的地方。门内外原有历代祭祀祝文,修庙碑记及众多的名人雅士的诗词文赋碑刻,不同时代,不同书体,各有千秋,蔚为壮观。可惜在文革中被砸毁,现仅存有清代张凤枝、卞宝弟《重修岳庙记》两块碑刻。嘉应门两侧是东、西回廊,各有厢房53间,东回廊外有八座道观,西回廊外为八个佛寺,分别供僧、道居住。这八寺、八观表示原本势不两立、水火不相容、佛道不相存的佛道两教在南岳衡山这个神奇的地方,两教地位平等,同存共荣。这种独特的佛、道教共存的现象,堪称一绝。

现在我们往前看到的则是第六进御书楼。楼内原藏有御制匾七块和历代祭文与祝文及加封岳神碑等。遗憾的是这些珍贵文物都毁于十年浩劫之中。御书楼现为文物展览之所,主要展出南岳附近出土及收藏的200余件珍贵文物。这些对研究古代南岳的政治、经济、军事、文化等方面都具有重大价值。

穿过御书楼,展现在各位眼前的这座气势雄伟,金碧辉煌,雕梁画栋,仿照故宫太和殿式的建筑,便是整个大庙的精华所在——即第七进圣帝殿,又叫正殿。它凌空屹立在十六级石阶之上,为重檐歇山式建筑,殿基长35.3米,宽53.68米,高31.11米,占地面积1877平方米。正殿不仅是整个大庙的最高建筑物,而且高出南岳古镇所有建筑物,以显示其至高无上的地位。殿内外共有72根石柱,象征着南岳72峰。

我们现在所见的正殿前端的两座对称的宝库,是供香客焚化香纸炮烛的熔炉。很久以来,一直盛传着“南岳圣帝有求必应,照远不照近”。的确每年来自国内外进香朝拜的客人数以百万计,且很多人年年都来朝拜。右边的这座宝库是供活着的人祈福焚香用的,左边的一座则是为祭祀先人焚香的地方,请各位在烧香时可不要烧错了香炉哟。“既然南岳圣帝照远不照近,那么,南岳人一定不信南岳圣帝啰。”确实南岳人平时很少拜圣帝,但在南岳却形成了一个约定俗成的规矩,就是当地居民在每年大年初一日开门的第一件事一定是带着香、炮、烛去大庙给南岳圣帝拜年,在给圣帝拜年的途中遇到亲朋好友、同事等视而不见,互不招呼。而在大年三十的夜晚,随着新年钟声的敲响,佛、道两教的高僧高道聚集在圣帝殿前举行隆重的新年祈福法会,那时人声鼎沸、鞭炮震天、欢天喜地、热闹非凡。因而参加新年祈福法会(烧头香),便成了南岳最有吸引力的特色旅游项目。大家看到通往正殿前的16级石阶中的这条汉白玉拜殿游龙,昂首拽尾,相传它不甘拜圣,欲飞天遁逃,结果被雷神击落在殿前,摔成五节,让它永远看守正殿,以示惩罚。

请各位抬头看正殿屋脊上有许多陶龙,大的长达三米,小的不足一尺,陶龙作为建筑装饰物始于唐代,现在屋顶所见的这些陶龙都是清朝时留下的原物,涂上彩釉,经过高温烧制成型,任凭日晒雨淋,冰封雪冻,都永葆色彩鲜艳,是陶瓷工艺中的佼佼者。殿屋脊中央是一个高4.55米,重千斤的七节青铜葫芦,脊角两端各有一把长一米,重三百斤的青铜宝剑,铸造光洁,历久不锈,既起避雷作用,又起装饰效果,使整个大殿增添壮丽神奇的色彩,得到国内外不少建筑、冶金专家的称赞。大殿四周有花岗石钩栏,126个石柱上雕有狮、象、麒麟、形态可掬。144块汉白玉栏板都是双面浮雕,刻有飞禽走兽,花鸟虫鱼和田园风光等,内容大都取材于《山海经》上的神话和历代传说典故。雕刻刀法刚健、线条流畅、构图奇巧。正殿前门的木槅门页上是一组“卧冰求鲤”的《二十四孝图》、《十八学士图》和三十六台古典故事浮雕,维妙维肖,形象逼真,精彩动人。在72根石柱中,只有正门前两根是由整块花岗石凿成,柱高6米,直径1米,重达14吨,其余70根均由两截连接而成。

大殿正中汉白玉基座的神龛内,供奉着高达6.3米的南岳司天昭圣帝,也就是祝融火神。祝融是上古轩辕时代黄帝手下的一名火正官,由于他以火施化、教民熟食、生火御寒、举火驱兽,其功德光融天下,黄帝命他为火正官(火神、赤帝)。并委任他主管南方事物,祝融以南岳衡山为栖息之所,死后葬于衡山,人们为了纪念他,便以衡山最高峰命名为祝融峰,并建祠纪念,埋葬他的山头叫赤帝峰。历代帝王都派出大臣来南岳隆重祭祀,祈求圣帝“以卫社稷,而福生灵”。圣帝左右立着金、吴二将,两侧是吏、户、礼、兵、刑、工六部尚书。神龛背面画有“老龙教子”巨幅壁画,幅面高7.4米,宽6.3米。各位请抬头看,石柱上承木柱,架接大梁,大梁用四个巨大的木雕彩凤花瓶的叶瓣支撑上面的梁架,几百个斗拱,一个个、一层层递叠到屋顶。真是木雕彩凤绕梁翩翩起舞,梁柱盘龙张牙舞爪,殿上木雕刻画维妙维肖。殿后大门上的“五龙朝圣”石刻活灵活现,呼之欲出;檐中的丹凤朝阳,三龙戏珠泥塑更是栩栩如生。整个殿宇由彩绘装饰得富丽堂皇,真可谓是集建筑艺术之大成,是一座雕刻的艺术宫苑。特别是反映数千年传统文化的木雕、石刻、泥塑,数量之多、品种之全、技艺之高超,无不令人惊叹。这些都反映了古代劳动人民精湛的技艺、高超的智慧。

大庙的第八进是寝宫,又称圣公圣母殿。殿中神座上原设有南岳圣帝与夫人景明后坐像,圣帝父母亲坐像,殿内原有万斤铜佛趺坐,可惜在文革中被付之一炬。现在所看到的是1990年重塑的圣公圣母坐像。圣公圣母是保佑夫妻恩爱、白头到老,百年好合的。各位可一定要拜拜他们啰。

北后门为岳庙最后一进,是岳庙中轴线上的终点。后门为单檐硬山三开间,东有注生殿,代表道教,祀注生真君,亦称南斗星君。东晋《授神记》载,南斗注生,北斗注死,注生之名,即由此而来。西有辖神殿,又称辖神祠,主祀辖神总管像,代表佛教。一观一寺再次体现了南岳佛道并存的特色。

好,南岳大庙到这里就参观完了,非常感谢大家的支持与合作,希望这次南岳之行能给各位留下美好的回忆,不到之处敬请各位提出宝贵意见。同时竭诚欢迎各位再次光临南岳衡山,再见!

Good morning! Ladies and gentlemen:

Today we will go and visit the Nanyue Temple, Nanyue Temple is situated on the northern tip of Nanyue Township and at the southern foot of Chidi Peak. In a layout of nine rows, It is the largest and best-preserved ancient palatial architectural complex of south China. Magnificent and splendid with resplendent upturned eaves. Inside the east in parallel to eight Buddhist palaces on the west, It is indeed a wonder in the history of religion that Taoism. Buddhism and Confucian culture can co-exist within a single temple.

The exact time of the construction of Nanyue Temple is unknown. It existed asearly as in the Qin and Han Dynastis. Originally Located on the summit of Zhurong Peak, The temple was later moved to the mountain foot to facilitate the religious activities. The beginning of the Tang Dynasty witnessed the formal construction of the Heavenly Lord Huo"s Temple" the "Heavenly Master Temple". So as to enshrine and worship the Gods of the five sacred mountains, During the Song Dynasty the immortal of the Hengshan Mountain was revered as the "Heavenly Master Zhaosheng",as a result the temple was gradually expanded and enlarged. Since the Tang Dynasty Nanyue Temple had beed subject to six fires and 16reconstructions all through the Song. Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. In the 8th year of Emperor Guangxu"s reign in the Qing Dynasty (1882 A.D), the Imperial Court ordered the rbuilding of Nanyue Temple. Which had been ruined by lightning, The project was imitative. Copying the styles of the Imperial Palace. And even to the present day it is still well preserved.

Fenced with red-brick walls.Nanyue Temple ccupies an area of some 70.000 square metres. From north to south lies in sequence nine rows and four courtyards-Lingxing Gate. Kuixing Tower. Chuan Gate. Pavilion of Imperial Study, Main Hall, Dwelling Palace and the Northern Rear Exit. The whole architecture complex stretches across on axis extending from south to north with its halls linked up together. The winding corridors and wing-rooms on both sides merge with each other. Accentuating the magnificence of the stature of the principal part. On the east side of the main temple there are eight Taoist palaces. Coordinating with eight Buddhist palaces on the west side.

The first row is Lingxing Gate. Two gilded Chinese characters "Mountain Temple" are shining on the white marble at the top of the gate. The marble gate stands as high as 20 metres with a width of 1.1 metres and is meant to imply that during the past dynasties all the religious activities were officiated by real knowledgeable people. The second row is kuixing Tower. The most perfectly preserved ancient stage in Human Province.with a breadth of 35metres and a length of 12. Its fa?ade facing the main palace, the stage is the place where people hold religious activities and perform local operas during pilgrimage. Before the tower stands a pair of 2-metre tall stone Kylin (Chinese unicorn). With their furious eyes widely open. They are like two solemn looking sentinels guarding the tower.

The pebble path under the Kuixing Tower leads to the third row-Main Chuan Gate. East and West Gates. The gateway is made of gray bricks with an awesome depth and height of 15 metres. The courtyard within is filled with dense cypress trees and carpeted with green grass. The fourth row is the Pavilion of Imperial Study. Distinguished by its gilded tiles. Octagonal doubleeaved roofs and exquisitely-crafted arches. Inside the pavilion there is a Bixi in the shape of a legendary animal like tortoise. Legend has it that Bixi is the ninth son of the dragon. The Bixi carries an imperial stele on which the full text of On Rebuilding Nanyue Temple was carved in the 47th year of Kangxi"s reign(1780 A.D.) in the Qing dynasty.

The fifth row is Jiaying Gate. Named after the line from The Annals of Han-Books of Rites and Joys: "This row is the place where local magistrates and monks welcomed ritual officials dispatched from the capital. After the Jiaying Gate the sixth row comes into view-Tower of Imperial Study. Which is the storehouse of the collection of imperial calligraphies .messages and inscribed boards concerning the past emperors" ritual presentations to the mountain. Sweeet osmanthus ahead of the tower submerges the building with its refreshing scent when it blossoms every autumn.

The seventh row is the Main Palace. Surrounded by towering old trees. Camphor trees planted in the Song Dynasty and cypress in the Ming Dynasty compete with each other in setting off the beauty of the upturned double-roofs and the splendour of the palace. Adding tremendous awe to the Main Palac. As it stands 29.11 metres, its girandeur rivals that of the Palace of supreme Harmony in the Forbidden City in Beijing. Inside the palace there are 72 stone pilliars, standing for the 72 peaks on the Hengshan Mountain. The two huge pillars upholding the main roofs were cut out of a whole granite. Each weighing 14 tons.

Encircled by the balustrades are 144 relief sculptures carved out of white marbles. Based on Shanhai Jing . Pillars on the forefront overlap. Carved on them are 56 historical and legendary thles . On the square door were carved the Images. On the square door were carved the Images of the 24 filial Sons and the Images of the 18 Scholars. Here tourists can get a rough idea of the age-old Chinese Confucian and Taoist cultures. Clay statues-Heavenly King Zhaosheng and General Jin and Wu line up in the palace with their impressively dignified look, calling forth in tourists a feeling of profound respect.

The eighth row is the dwelling Palacewith double roofs and in perfect harmony with the whole mountain. This structure keeps up the architectural style of the Song Dynasty and is decorated with coloured drawings and patterns whichare popular among palaces in the North. giving a sense of gorgeousness to this palace. The ninth row is the Northern Rear Exit. The end of the axial architecture, with Zhusheng Palace to the right and Chief God Palace to the left, At the back of the exit. A path leads farther into the mountain.

Nanyue Temple occupies a prominent position in the history of ancient Chinese architecture. It carries the grandeur characterized by palaces in the North. And at the same time it smacks of the loveliness featured by gardens in the South. The architectural arrangement of the temple is clearly demarcated and gently modulated. Strongly indicating the ingenuity and originality of the craftsmen. Its ground and upper layouts are like an eternal musical movement with its own overture, main body and coda. Demonstrating the excellence of ancient Chinese architecture.

Nanyue Temple carries a profound cultural connotation. It boasts a large number of clay statues. Wood engravings and stone carvings, which are all closely linked up with Chinese tradition and culture. Over 800 dragons of various sizes, which are the symbol of the Chinese nation.can be found everwhere in the temple. The carvings on the roof wood and white marble balustrades are an encyclopedia of ancient history and mythology. There are fairy tales- "Pan Gu Creating the Universe." "Hou Yi Shooting the Suns", "Jing Wei Filling up the Ocean"?; real stories about some historical figures- "Su Wu Shepherding Sheep." "sleeping on sticks and Tasting the Gallbladder." "Da MO Crossing the Sea"? ; legends extolling filial piety- "Melting the Ice with Body Warmth to Catch Carps." "Weeping on the Bamboo until it Turns into shoots"? Most of the carvings are the lgends about the earliest ancestors of Taoist immortals. As early as in the Qing and Ming Dynasties, clay status, wood engraving and stone carving were reputed as "the Three Wonders to the South of the Yangtze River."

All through the dynasties Nanyue Temple has been a thriving place to hold religious activities both for the feudal imperial courts and the ordinary people. Every year the temple greets nearly 1.000.000 pilgrims. The offerings, presentation, titles and other customs are almost the same as they were thousands years ago. There are "bowing pilgrimage" in which the pilgrims bow with each step or with every three steps , and "hunger pilgrimage" in which the pilgrims bow with each step or with every three steps. "And hunger pilgrimage" in which the pilgrims refrain from food during their trip. More often. Pilgrims would set off in throngs. They wear gray clothes with a red cloth attached to their chest reading "Hengshan Mountain Pilgrimage." Holding buring incenses in hand. Those pious pilgrims chant pilgriming theme" to pray for the peace of the nation and the wealth of people, making it a really spectacular scene on the mountain。 

南岳大庙

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